Consensus-based recommendation for surveillance of spine scoliosis and kyphosis

This page is part of the PanCare follow-up recommendations for surveillance of late effects. Click here, for more information on these recommendations.

Who is at risk for spine scoliosis and kyphosis?

CAYA cancer survivors treated with or with a history of

  • surgery of the spine
  • surgery of the chest a
  • radiotherapy to a volume exposing the spine
  • spinal or paraspinal malignancies

What problems might occur?

  • Spine scoliosis

  • Spine kyphosis

What surveillance modality should be used and at what frequency should it be performed?

  • A physical exam of the spine
    every year until growth is completed, starting at entry into long-term follow-up; the surveillance frequency may be increased during puberty

What should be done if abnormalities are identified?

  • Perform imaging and/or refer to an orthopaedic surgeon or physical therapist as clinically indicated


While PanCare strives to provide accurate and complete information that is up-to-date as of the date of publication, we acknowledge that the sequence of referral and diagnostic tests might vary according to the local and national healthcare system logistics.

It is recognised that survivors and their healthcare professionals have the final responsibility for making decisions concerning their long-term follow-up care. As such, they may choose to either adopt these recommendations or not to do so after individual informed discussion. It is good practice to document this decision.

In addition to regular surveillance, real-time awareness and prompt reporting of new symptoms and signs is essential to the early detection and timely treatment of late effects.

No warranty or representation, expressed or implied, is made concerning the accuracy, reliability, completeness, relevance, or timeliness of this information.

The PanCare materials are free to use for anyone aiming to inform about late effects and long-term survivorship care. However, no financial advantage may be achieved. All communication should reference PanCare and link to the PanCare website.

a Does not include central venous catheter placement